Academic boycott – failure of BDS – loss of Palestinian jobs

The student newspaper of Edinburgh University (The Student, Tuesday 3 November 2015)  recently carried a report on the public pledge signed by UK academics to boycott Israeli universities. The piece offered reasonably balanced student and academic opinion about the matter, and included comment from both the Palestine Solidarity Campaign (PSC) and the Union of Jewish Students (UJS).

The pledge of the UK academics doubtless brought enthusiastic applause across Edinburgh campuses, not least among local supporters of the Scottish Palestine Solidarity Campaign (SPSC). However, let us get this all into perspective. Based on the number of academics and universities reported on, a mere 6-7 academics in each of the 72 universities appear to have actually signed the public pledge, according to the report. Since there are something like 109 university institutions across the UK, with 90-odd in England alone, and since the returns of the Higher Education Statistics Agency tell us that there were 194,245 UK academic staff in 2013-2014, the level of response must surely be read as a dismal failure of the much-lauded ‘latest salvo in the broader Boycott, Disinvestment and Sanctions (BDS) campaign’.

It is always possible that the intentions of those 400 out of 190,000 or so academics are positive ones and completely devoid of bigotry, and simply the expression of a desire to ‘help’ Palestinians against particular Israeli policy, perceived policy, or set of Israeli behaviours. However, when there are no comparable boycott campaigns to exclude any other states based on this or that – when Israel is regarded almost as ‘the’ singular evil – then alarm bells ought to start ringing.

Why the focus on Israel? Why no criticism of Egypt for its demolition of houses in Gaza to make way for a barrier? Why is there not even a whimper, not a petition, not a protest, when Palestinians suffer in their thousands in Syria? Why no boycott of China (a country that ‘disappears’ dissenting Tibetans) or Russia for human rights abuses? Or of Myanmar for its treatment of the Rohingya community? Why no focus on the many states where freedom of the press and freedom of speech are lacking? Or of those where there is no functioning legal system? Why no focus on those countries where trade unions and political parties are illegal? Why no focus on countries where there is no democracy? Why no pressure on Palestinian leaderships to dump ‘rejectionism’ and become the actors in a conflict it is within their power to resolve?

Exclusive focus on Jewish Israel for boycott, will normalise Jews across the world as suitable targets for exclusion and punishment. If we can anthropomorphise things a bit, and look at Israel as a student playing in a playground of countries; if we then witnessed a teaching assistant look out the window to watch bullying students terrorising their classmates, and then yank inside for detention the Jewish kid trying to defend him or herself, then we’d want to start asking questions. We’d smell a vague whiff of bigotry.

The piece in The Student noted that the move by academics was ‘hailed by Palestinian rights groups’ and that their pledge ‘was lauded by Palestinian advocacy organisations’. Qatari-born Omar Barghouti, a founding member of the Palestinian Campaign for the Academic and Cultural Boycott of Israel (PACBI) and founding member of the BDS movement, and who has attended Tel Aviv University (can anyone else see the irony of that one) will doubtless have hailed and lauded the academics. But, what about the Palestinian Government? Has it hailed and lauded the UK academic boycott? Isn’t it the case that the Palestinian Government is disparaging of the BDS movement, and doesn’t believe that it serves the interests of the Palestinian people?

Though skilled at offering one view to Arab audiences and another to non-Arabic-speaking audiences, even Mahmoud Abbas has condemned the boycotting of Israel. Indeed, Palestinian infrastructural decision-making also tells a story far from supportive of BDS. For example, the first buyer of natural gas from Israel’s largest gas field in the Mediterranean will be the Palestine Power Generation Company (PPGC) which supplies power to Palestinian areas in the West Bank. PPGC will buy around $1.2-billion worth of gas over 20-years. The Israeli Leviathan Group will sell the PPGC as much as 4.75-billion cubic metres of gas when the Leviathan product begins to flow in 2016 or 2017. The Palestinian company aims to build a $300-million power plant in the West bank city of Jenin to produce electricity from the gas.

It would seem that local Palestinian economic policy is at odds with the shrill calls from distant Europe. Indeed, Professor Jonathan Rosenhead of the London School of Economics has made himself heard through the clamour. He tells The Student that if Israel continues with its policies ‘there are consequences’ and ‘Israel in the end will feel some of the disadvantages which Palestinians already have’. Really?

Isn’t it the case that BDS actions also have consequences, and add to Palestinian disadvantage? Didn’t the movement recently wreck Palestinian job opportunities? Didn’t the successful Israeli Sodastream business leave the West Bank for a new and larger plant at Rahat in the Negev Desert as a result of BDS activity? This action had the consequence of offering more jobs for Israelis and losing 500 Palestinians their employment in the West Bank. Sodastream had been paying them at Israeli wage levels, and had provided private health insurance. The producer of the Bagel-Bagel snack and a global producer of locks – Abloy – also left the West Bank for Israel proper once BDS got stuck in. More jobs for Israelis. Nice one BDS! Always doing something to help Palestine!

While BDS loses Palestinians their jobs, Jordanians are flocking to neighbouring Israel for employment (again, can anyone see the irony of that). This year, just like last year, some 1,500 Jordanian workers are being recruited in three groups of 500 to work in the busy Eilat hotel industry. Israeli Eilat lies adjacent to Jordanian Aqaba in the southern Negev at the top of the Gulf of Eilat, the same stretch of water that laps the beaches of Sharm El-Sheikh. Imagine what a peace treaty like the one between Israel and Jordan could do for Palestinians? Over to you Mr. Abbas.

As the BDS movement continues to show gross failure and incompetence, it is the 189,600 or so UK academics not signing the public pledge to boycott Israeli universities who will be seen to have stood on the right side of history.


BDS, Suha Arafat, and some Jewish history

Small deluded groups of leftist opinion formers in western countries (e.g. the Scottish Palestine Solidarity Campaign) continue in their efforts to discredit Israel and to institute boycott, disinvestment and sanctions against the country. Meanwhile, Jordanian-born Suha Arafat (born in Jerusalem under the Jordanian administration, and widow of deceased Palestinian Authority Chairman Yasser Arafat, who was born in Egypt) has instead stated that the time had come for the region’s Arabs to recognise the state of Israel, and that armed struggle to eliminate the Jewish state’s existence was no longer plausible.

Arafat has said that Arabs had to ‘clearly express […] recognition of Israel’. Further, she said that ‘no one can doubt its existence’. What she did not however say was whether or not she thought Israel had a RIGHT to exist… only that it DOES exist. The remarks had come on the tenth anniversary of her husband’s death last November 2014.

She had also expressed dismay at Hamas, and how the terror group had attacked Fatah leaders and buildings after its takeover of the Gaza Strip. Further, she said that Hamas was ruining the futures of Gaza youth, and committing ‘genocide’ upon its own people. The Hamas-generation has grown up with violence, without education, and with emigration as their only hope. She hoped that Hamas would finally understand that it should work towards peace.

While Arafat’s input was a milestone, Israeli officials speak about the need for Palestinians to acknowledge Israel’s right to exist. Doing so would recognise the state’s long-term sovereignty and permanence.

Israelis have a number of reasons for demanding their country be recognised as their national homeland. For the Jews, Palestinian recognition of the State of Israel as the national homeland of the Jews means the end of the conflict. They want to be sure that a Palestinian state bordering on Israel is the Palestinians’ final demand and that they accept the fact of Israel’s existence.

In some ways too the deluded European and North American BDS-ers also need to accept that fact of Israel’s existence, and to acknowledge that the State of Israel is simply not going to melt away. Boycotting Israel, whose agencies, institutions, universities, and laboratories have been responsible for so many Nobel Prizes and the creation of stunning advances for the good of us all, will not reduce Israeli academic nor military excellence. In boycotting Israel, the people likely to suffer most will be the thousands of Palestinian breadwinners who currently work in Israel’s factories and fields, both in Israel itself and in the West Bank.

The deluded also have to accept some historical facts, study a bit of Jewish history, and research with a great more depth the origin of the ‘Palestinians’ to whom they offer succour.

Firstly, in spite of the ancient Assyrian, Babylonian, and Roman exiles endured by many Jews of the region, Jews have nevertheless had a continuous presence there for thousands of years (particularly in Jerusalem, Safed and Tiberias). Indeed, Jewish history and Jews themselves have a presence in the Holy Koran as well as in the Old and New Testaments.

Secondly, it was the Romans who first applied the name Palestine (Palestina) to the region around 70AD – around the time that they destroyed the Jewish Temple in the renamed Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem) – but it was not at that time a home to the Arabs whose universe at this point was still the Arabian Peninsula. Neither was Palestine a name that the later Ottomans would adopt, as their own imperial system used the ‘vilayet’ and ‘sanjak’ administrative system. They knew the region as composed of the Vilayet of Beirut, the Vilayet of Syria and the Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem or Sanjak of Jerusalem. European Christians (i.e. the Church of Rome) however would continue to use the Roman name of Palestine… hence our modern attachment to the name.

Thirdly, the Arab ancestors of today’s Moslems in the region only swept in during the 7th century AD and with the imperialist expansion of Islam. Fast forward to the 20th century and to the British presence in ‘Palestine’ (the name of the region applied by the Romans, but ignored by the Ottomans), reference was always made to the Moslem ‘Arabs’ and to the ‘Palestinian’ Jews… the Palestinians were the Jews, the ‘Arabs’ were the Moslems (indeed, the anti-Israeli BDS-er need only refer to English language newspapers of the period to read this for themselves). Then, post-1948, and right through to the Six Day 1967 and the Yom Kippur 1972 and a bit afterwards, references were always to the Jewish-Arab conflict, never to the Jewish-Palestinian conflict.

Fourthly, not all of the diverse Arab populations of Judea, Samaria and Gaza have lived in these areas for the many generations and the many centuries that many voices urge us to believe. Either they came with invading armies, or were imported as cheap labour by the Turks and British, or wanted to profit from the economic advances made by the Jews who had been returning to rebuild their homeland since the 18th century (returning to an empty and barren landscape). Others fled to Palestine from neighbouring Arab countries. While these same voices mock the dual-passport-holding modern Israeli, they ignore the dual-passport-holding Arabs of Judea, Samaria and Gaza many of whom have relatives in Israel, some in Jordan, some in Lebanon, some in Egypt, some in Europe and North America.

Deep silence from the SPSC about the killing of Palestinians in Yarmouk, Damascus!!!

The SPSC (Scottish Palestine Solidarity Campaign) – long offering succour to the fascist leaderships Hamas and Fatah – is fond of using the word ‘massacre’ when there isn’t one, and ignoring a real one while it actually happens! Maybe it is only worth wailing and demonstrating when a Palestinian is killed by an Israeli… that’s certainly what it seems like when you check out the SPSC website.

Having just had a look at the SPSC website we can confidently report a complete absence of condemnation from that group about the condition and fate of Palestinians in the Yarmouk district of Damascus (the so-called Palestinian ‘camp’ which is actually a city suburb). Similarly, no condemnation of the Syrian government massacre of its citizens… no condemnation of Islamic State and its killing of Palestinians. No great condemnation either from other groups about the bombing and killing of Yemeni civilians.

Further… no First Minister or any other politician heading a ‘Stop the War in Syria’ march in Glasgow or Edinburgh… no ‘Women for Syria’ rally… no ‘Women for Yemen and Yarmouk’ rally… No demands for governments to take action… All quite different from August 2014 when Nicola Sturgeon agreed to headline a ‘Women for Gaza’ rally in Glasgow.

While Israel was defending itself from terrorist acts mounted from Gaza last year, the streets around Israeli embassies across Europe were crowded with demonstrators in support of Palestinians, wailing about a ‘massacre’ in Gaza, and threatening all kinds of retribution on Jews. Massacre in Gaza there wasn’t, but there certainly is in Syria right this very minute, and civilians are dying in Yemen now too.

You don’t get to see that of course, because journalists and their cameramen find it much less comfortable to report from Yemen than from Dubai and the comfort of their hotel lounges. They like to report from Israel too when there is a dust-up in Gaza because the hotels are so much more congenial in Tel Aviv (piece to camera on the border with smoke in the background in Gaza). And of course you don’t get your attention drawn to it in the streets from groups such as the SPSC, because their prime motive is not support for Palestinians but condemnation of Israel.

Where are the events in support of the distressed Palestinians of Syria? Where are the calls for aid? Where are the plans to lobby MPs and get weeping celebrities in front of a camera? All there is… is silence. And yet… isn’t the SPSC supposed to be campaigning for Palestine?

Middle East 2014: 9000 child deaths… in Syria, not Gaza. Some thoughts about the Israel-Gaza war

Something for the SPSC (Scottish Palestine Solidarity Campaign) to chew over in their earnest discussion and debate about ‘important issues that inform the nature of solidarity with Palestinians’ is this remarkable contribution from the Palestinian diplomat Dr. Ibrahim Khraishi.

Almost mirroring the statement made by Benjamin Netanyahu a few days ago, this Palestinian representative to the UN Human Rights Council in Geneva said it again: Every rocket and mortar fired from Gaza toward Israel is a ‘crime against humanity’. Khraishi had been speaking on Palestinian Authority television about the possible risks involved if Palestinians leaders ask to join the International Criminal Court. Membership of the body had been seen as a means of pushing for measures against Israel. Khraishi said however that the ‘Palestinian weakness’ in terms of international law is the indiscriminate firing of rockets at Israel’. He went on to say that the ‘each and every missile constitutes a crime against humanity, whether it hits or misses, because it is directed at civilian targets’.

That wasn’t all – and read and listen well members of the SPSC – he went on to say that, by contrast, Israel’s actions follow legal procedures, because the IDF warns Gazan civilians to leave before they are bombed. He said, ‘Many of our people in Gaza appeared on television and said that the Israelis warned them to evacuate their homes before the bombardment’. He went on, ‘In such a case, if someone is killed, the law considers it a mistake rather than an intentional killing because [the Israelis] followed the legal procedures’. He continued, ‘As for the missiles launched from our side, we never warn anyone about where these missiles are about to fall or about the operations we carry out’.

Khraishi’s remarks are bound to remain unheard or under-reported in the western tv and press however as public anguish is orchestrated to hysterical levels over civilian deaths in Gaza-Palestine. Western hysteria, which is almost certain to include outraged and weeping celebrities such as pop-stars and Hollywood actors, is just what Hamas and the wider Middle East group of anti-Israeli and anti-Jewish militant nut-jobs want (and who can forget the embarrassing input from Annie Lennox and Alexei Sayle on the streets of London a few years ago).

They are offering a diversionary sideshow to the wider theatre of death in the Middle East. They know it is a show that Europeans just love. We are all slavering in anticipation of the first dead-baby-photograph, and Hamas – a wholly malevolent organisation which would be recognised as neo-Nazis if they happened to be white and Christian – is a master in its propaganda craft.

Since March 2014 and the first spike in rocket attacks on Israel, and egged on by its Iranian patron, Hamas has been attempting to divert western attention away from the Syrian civil war where real massacres are taking place on a daily basis. In June there was second spike in activity, and now, as night follows day, there is a renewed bout of fighting between Israel and Hamas. The BBC and other media outlets meanwhile have been trying to couple the current Israeli air-assault with the recent and unsolved murder of the three Israeli teenagers in West Bank Palestine and the ensuing revenge attack on a Palestinian teenager.

Did we mention Syria? Yes. Syria. Never mind the sideshow which is Gaza-Palestine. Since the outbreak of the civil war in Syria some 170,000 people have died, one third of them civilians and including over 9000 child deaths.  Compare this to statistics gathered by the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) in relation to deaths of Israelis and Palestinians between 1948 and 2009…: 14,500 !!! Yes… 14,500 for both sides!!! It just doesn’t compare to moslem-on-moslem violence. We know that it is the summer vacation and that UK, European and North American university campuses are devoid of students for the next few weeks but where is the international campaign against the Syrian slaughter? When will there be a ‘Syrian Genocide Week’. Maybe it happened but we had our eyes closed???

On a lighter note, it was reported in the last day or two that a Gazan rocket had knocked out power for 70,000 Gaza-Palestinians. A rocket fired from Gaza knocked out a power line in Israel that supplied electricity to the entity. Shrapnel from the rocket hit the high voltage line that feeds electricity into Gaza. The Israel Electric Corporation said that the danger posed to IEC workers would delay any repairs.

So world!!!… Look out for shock and outrage about the delay to these repairs, and how Gazan mothers are unable to heat their baby-food!!! But remember, war is war, civilians die, but not nearly as many Gaza-Palestinians as Syrians. And, yes… Israel does indeed supply electricity to a government which is trying to destroy it !


Palestinian says, ‘Recognise Israel as a Jewish state, and forget about the right of return’

A leading Palestinian diplomat – Manuel Hassassian – has said that ‘the Palestinian leadership must officially recognize Israel as a Jewish state and heavily revise current demands for a full-fledged right of return for Palestinian refugees’. Hassassian who has been the Palestinian ambassador to the UK said that this was how a truly lasting peace agreement could be achieved. It is unclear how this argument would fly with pro-Palestinian groups in Europe, North America, and Australia. Probably like a lead balloon

Alongside an Israeli counter-part – Professor Raphael Cohen-Almagor – Hassassian outlined the steps that would need to be taken for the Palestinian Authority (PA) and the Israeli government to realise a final peace deal. They said that the conflict could only come to an end if both Israel and the Palestinians recognised the right of the other to self-determination – something that hitherto, the extreme Palestinian elements (in Gaza for example) had failed to do. Concession would have to be made. At the same time that Israel recognised a State of Palestine, Palestine too had to recognise the Jewish State of Israel.

Of course, the stance taken by Hassassian is quite contrary to that taken by PA President Mahmoud Abbas who has insisted that there was ‘no way’ the Palestinians would ever recognise Israel as a Jewish state.

Another area of contention was the drawing up of a plan to resettle and rehabilitate Palestinian refugees, as this issue has always posed a major obstacle to the peace process. Hassassian and Cohen-Almagor have suggested that 1948 Palestinian refugees should be allowed to settle in the future Palestinian state while other Palestinians would be absorbed by different countries based on previously set quotas. Israel, however, would not be forced to accept a massive influx of refugees and their descendants into its territory, though unification of families living on either side of the Jewish state’s border would be allowed on a limited scale.

A push for this by Hassassian is, again, contrary to the position held by Abbas, who said as recently as January 2014 that he could not negotiate away the absolute right of Palestinian refugees and their descendants to return to sovereign Israel. The Abbas position on the ‘Palestinian’ and his/her ‘rights’ is of course at great odds with the experience of Pakistanis and Indians in the late-1940s when they too left the soil of their birth to settle elsewhere… or indeed the experience of ethnic-Germans ejected from Poland and Czechoslovakia after 1945. Pakistanis have won no absolute right of return to sovereign India.

Hassassian has also put forward the position that Israel was entitled to annexe large settlement blocs in the West Bank as part of an agreed-upon land swap scheme with the PA. The major settlement blocs – Maaleh Adumim, Givat Zeev, Gush Etzion, Modiin Illit and Ariel – which account for approximately 70 percent of the Jewish population in the West Bank and for less than four percent of its territory, may be annexed to Israel upon reaching an agreement with the PA as part of the land swap equal in size and quality.

Who will win the day – or which standpoint will win the day – in future peace negotiations though? That is the big question. Another big question for the Scottish Palestine Solidarity Campaign to discuss on their little away-weekend in July.

Mahmoud Abbas said that he doesn’t support the boycott of Israel: Chew on that SPSC !!!

In previous posting, this blog has suggested that activist groups like the Scottish Palestine Solidarity Campaign (SPSC) are far more Palestinian than the Palestinians themselves. Some of the boycott, disinvestment and sanctions (BDS) campaigning which it supports has led to the loss of jobs for Palestinians in the West Bank and the creation of job-opportunities for Israelis in Israel instead. An example of this was the de-camp of Unilever and its ‘Bagel-Bagel’ factory from the West Bank to the ancient Jewish town of Safed in the Northern District of Israel, and of Sweden’s ‘Mul-T-Lock’ firm which followed suit and moved its factory to Yavneh in the Central District of Israel. Now it appears that Mahmoud Abbas himself believes that BDS activists like the SPSC are a threat to Palestinian interests and that he does not support the boycott of Israel.

While regarding themselves as noble fighters in a worthy cause, activists of the BDS movement on university campuses across North America, Europe and Australia, are seen simply as trouble-makers and law-breakers by the Palestinian Authority (PA). For some PA officials, BDS is a movement that acts against the true interests of the Palestinians. They say that the actions of those promoting BDS make the Palestinians appear disinterested in peace and co-existence with Israel. Indeed, in Ramallah, capital of the Palestinian entity, activists have succeeded in preventing several planned meetings between Israelis and Palestinians in that city and in Jerusalem. An official from the PA has stated that the BDS activists are radicals who are only interested in boycotting and deligitimising Israel, and that this is against the official policy of seeking a peace agreement with Israel based on the two-state solution.

The PA is worried too that BDS is harming the Palestinian relationship with other countries, and a recent example of this was an attempt to disrupt a performance by an Indian dance troupe in Ramallah… a tactic reminiscent of SPSC activity during performances of the Batsheva Dance Group in Edinburgh in recent years. During the Ramallah performance, which had been attended by senior PA officials, BDS activists protested against the presence of the dance troupe in Ramallah because its members had also performed in Tel Aviv. The result of the interruption was four men (Zeid Shuaibi, Abdel Jawad Hamayel, Fadi Quran and Fajr Harb) were detained by PA security forces and – had they shown up at court on the day – would have been tried by a PA court for ‘provoking riots and breach of public tranquility’.

The PA action against BDS activists shows that the movement is considered a threat to the interests of Palestine and emphasises what Mahmoud Abbas has said to journalists before: ‘No, we do not support the boycott of Israel’.

The aim of the prosecution of the four Ramallah activists has been to send a message to BDS supporters worldwide that the movement is acting against the true interests of the Palestinians and promoting hatred and bigotry. The question is of course whether or not BDS supporters around the world will take the message on board and reach the conclusion that by being anti-Israel and anti-Israeli, the BDS movement is also an anti-Palestinian and anti-peace movement.

Perhaps this is something for the SPSC to chew over during its annual summer outing in July, this year to the Gulabin Lodge, Glenshee, when they discuss the important issues that inform the nature of their solidarity with Palestinians.

Israel: SPSC and the Wood Group

As the Scottish Palestine Solidarity Campaign (SPSC) settles down to plan its annual jaunt or jolly – this year to the Gulabin Lodge, Glenshee, 20-22 July – to take a little time out discussing and debating ‘important issues that inform nature of […] solidarity with Palestinians’, they may also need to think a little about how a recent action against the Wood Group in Aberdeen made absolutely no dent at all in the Scottish consciousness.

On 14 May 2014 little phalanxes of storm-troopers were to set off from Edinburgh, Glasgow and Dundee – head-scarves all freshly laundered, and flags of black, white, red and green all-freshly sagging – heading for Aberdeen… for their action. That was the plan anyway. Try as you might though, it is very hard to find out any information about the exciting day. It was probably a Facebook demonstration!!!

Why has the SPSC been so upset about the Wood Group? Well… back in November 2010 the John Wood Group, which is an energy services firm, secured an engineering, procurement and construction contract valued at around US $875-million from Israel’s Dorad Energy. They were to build an 800 MW gas fired power plant in Israel. Once finished and commissioned – around now – the plant would account for around 8 per cent of Israel’s total installed power generation capacity. The plan also is for the electricity to power Mekorot, the Israeli state water company, responsible for supplying both Palestinians and Israelis with water, and to power the Keter Products factory in an Israeli settlement in the Palestinian territories partly administered by Israel.

The power station at Dorad is near Ashkelon and of course also near the border with Gaza, and that latter point is the one to really excite the SPSC. The anti-semitic organisation SPSC regards the Wood Group as ‘providing state of the art energy technology to Israel while the apartheid state enforces its brutal siege of the Gaza Strip’. The SPSC has tried to draw our attention to what they regard as a restriction from Israel on ‘fuel, electricity, and materials for essential maintenance’ to the extent that ‘Gaza is forced to endure daily and lengthy blackouts’ with havoc wreaked ‘on all aspects of life including health, education and sanitation’.

In its foaming focus on what they term ‘Israeli apartheid’ and on a ‘brutal siege’ as regards Gaza, the SPSC continues to ignore the fact that Egypt too shares a border with Gaza. Imagine the SPSC condemning Egypt!!! No brutal Egyptian siege of Gaza!!! Gazans are inconvenienced, so this becomes a ‘siege’ !!! The Siege of Leningrad was a real siege. The Battle of Stalingrad was a real siege. Think of another word for the inconveniences undergone by Gazans !!!

Siege? What siege? Gaza enjoys a higher standard of living than the Egyptian or Jordanian. The UN has stated that.

As regards fuel and electricity shortages in Gaza-Palestine and West-Bank-Palestine… if bills were paid and if pipes were left in the ground rather than be utilised in armaments production there would be enough power and water for the local need. The UN has stated that too.

Well done Wood Group for its support of the Israeli and Scottish economies.